We designed a population-based retrospective cohort study to investigate the association between the event of alcohol intoxication and the risk of pyogenic liver abscess. The present study enrolled 245,076 patients with a history of alcohol intoxication from 2000 to 2010 and matched each of them with four comparison patients, with similar mean age and sex ratios. We determined the cumulative incidences and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of liver abscess. A significant association was observed between alcohol intoxication and liver abscess. The incidence density rate of liver abscess was 3.47-fold greater in the alcohol intoxication (AI) cohort than in the non-AI cohort (12.2 vs. 3.43 per 10,000 person-years), with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 2.64 (95% CI = 2.26 to 3.08). This population-based study positively associated the event of alcohol intoxication with increased risk of liver abscess. Our findings warrant further large-scale and in-depth investigations in this area.