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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://asiair.asia.edu.tw/ir/handle/310904400/111285


    Title: 住宿型長期照護機構工作人員對於防火管理的認知、態度與行為之研究-以臺中市大里區為例
    Authors: 陳柏宇
    Contributors: 健康產業管理學系長期照護組碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 防火管理、住宿型長期照護機構、認知、態度、行為、fire management、residential long-term care institutions、perception、attitude、behavior
    Date: 2018
    Issue Date: 2018-08-13 14:33:53 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 亞洲大學
    Abstract: 背景:台灣因為高齡化與少子化的問題日益嚴重,住宿型長期照護機構(簡稱長照機構)的需求快速提高,不過,由於長照機構之住民多為老人或身心障礙者,身體活動能力較一般人差,故火災發生時在自主避難的能力較差的情況下,大多需要旁人協助逃生避難。雖然政府單位近年來對於長照機構的建築物及消防設備都有相關的改善依據,但仍然不斷發生長照機構火災傷亡的事件,可看得出「人」才是真正的問題,若工作人員平時人員沒有落實火災預防以降低火災發生機率;或是災害發生時沒有使用消防滅火、通報及逃生設備的正確觀念,就算有再安全的建築物或消防設備也不足以應付無情的大火。
    目的:瞭解長照機構內工作人員對於防火管理的「認知」、「態度」、「行為」構面之現況,並進一步探討影響長照機構內工作人員之防火管理認知、態度與行為的因素及三者間之關聯性。
    方法:本研究採橫斷性研究設計,以臺中市大里區所有的長照機構為例,透過自擬結構式問卷進行量化調查與分析。問卷題目採李克特五點量表,受測者平均分數愈高,表示防火管理的認知、態度與行為愈佳。統計分析部分採用SPSS 20.0進行,包括:樣本基本資料及各構面題項之描述性統計、獨立樣本t檢定、單因子變異數分析、皮爾森相關分析、複迴歸分析及階層迴歸分析等。
    結果:本研究共調查9間長照機構,合計回收184份有效問卷,回收率59%。臺中市大里區長照機構工作人員認知、態度與行為的平均分數分別為4.32(±0.44)、4.57(±0.41)、4.28(±0.50)分。在各構面題項分數中,機構工作人員對於「常閉式的安全門應經常保持關閉」有較低之認知分數;態度題項中「夜間人力較少,我認為不需要針對夜間進行消防演練」的分數較低;機構工作人員對於「如果發生火災,我認為我會正確使用機構內部滅火設備執行滅火動作」有較低的行為分數。由複迴歸分析結果得知,本國籍及教育程度愈高者的防火管理認知、態度與行為分數皆顯著較高。年齡方面,年齡愈大的組別有顯著較高的防火管理認知分數。性別方面,女性的防火管理行為分數較男性顯著較低。階層迴歸分析的結果顯示,在控制其它變項後,認知與態度均正向且顯著地影響行為,且態度對認知與行為之關聯性具有部分中介效果。
    結論:由本研究結果可知性別、年齡、國籍、教育程度及年資會影響長照機構工作人員之防火管理的認知、態度與行為。期待未來政府進行防火政策規劃及機構進行內部管理時,可針對防火管理各構面較為缺乏的族群,以及各構面中得分較薄弱的面向加強教育與訓練。此外透過防火管理認知的提升,可以改善防火管理態度,進一步產生正向的防火管理行為。
    Background:
    Due to the exacerbating problems of aging population and low fertility in Taiwan, the demand for residential long-term care institutions (“LTC institutions”) has rapidly increased. However, as the residents of LTC institutions are mostly elderly or physically disabled, their physical mobility is comparatively limited compared to ordinary people. Thus, with poor ability for taking refuge in the event of a fire, most of them need help from others for escaping. Even though government agencies have made relevant improvements to the buildings and fire-fighting equipment of the institutions in recent years, it still has fire accidents occurring in those institutions. It is evident that the real problem lies in "people". If the staffs do not implement fire prevention on ordinary days to reduce the probability of fire occurrence, or if they lack the correct understanding of firefighting, alarm and escape equipment in the event of disaster, no matter how safe the buildings or fire-fighting equipment are, they will not be sufficient for dealing with the ruthless fire.

    Objective:
    The aim is to learn about the current status of the "perceptual", "attitudinal" and "behavioral" aspects of the staff in LTC institutions regarding fire protection management and to further explore the factors behind these aspects, as well as the correlation between the three aspects.

    Methods:
    This study adopted a cross-sectional study design, taking all the LTC institutions in Da-li District of Taichung City as examples, with quantitative surveys and analysis conducted through self-designed structured questionnaires. The questionnaire was based on the Likert five-point scale. The higher the average score of the subjects, the better the perception, attitude, and behavior toward fire management. The statistical analysis part was carried out using SPSS 20.0; it includes sample basic data and descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, single-factor variance analysis, Pearson correlation analysis, complex regression analysis, and hierarchical regression analysis for each aspect item.

    Results:
    A total of 9 LTC institutions were surveyed in this study, and a total of 184 valid questionnaires were collected, with a recovery rate of 59%. The average scores on perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of the staff of LTC institution in Da-li District, Taichung City were 4.32 (±0.44), 4.57 (±0.41), and 4.28 (±0.50), respectively. Among the scores of each aspect, the institution staff has a lower perception score for the "Normally closed safety door should be kept closed". In the attitude item, the score for "There is less manpower at night, so I don't think there is a need for fire drills at night" is low. In the behavior item, the staff has a lower score for "In the event of fire, I think I can use the internal fire-fighting equipment to perform the fire-fighting action correctly." According to the results of the complex regression analysis, the higher the education level with Taiwanese nationality, the higher the perception, attitude, and behavior score of fire management. In terms of age, older age groups have significantly higher scores on perception on fire management. In terms of gender, the scores on fire management behaviors for females were significantly lower than those for males. The results of hierarchical regression analysis show that with other variables controlled, both perception and attitude positively and significantly affect behavior, and attitude has a partial mediating effect on the relationship between perception and behavior.

    Conclusion:
    The results of this study show that gender, age, nationality, education level, and seniority will affect the perceptions, attitudes, and behavior of the staff of LTC institutions on fire management. Looking forward to the government's policy planning on fire prevention and internal management of the agencies in the future, education and training should be strengthened for the groups that lack an understanding of the various aspects of fire prevention management, as well as the aspects with weaker scores. In addition, through the improvement on the awareness of fire management, attitudes on fire management would then be improved, which in turn creates positive behaviors related to fire management.
    Appears in Collections:[健康產業管理學系] 博碩士論文

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