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    Title: Shikonin upregulates the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in primary rat hepatocytes
    Authors: 黃晉修;Huang, Chin-Shiu;Chen, Haw-Wen;Chen, Haw-Wen;Lin, Tzu-Yu;Lin, Tzu-Yu;Lin, Ai-Hsuan;Lin, Ai-Hsuan;李宗貴;Lii, Chong-Kuei;*
    Contributors: 食品營養與保健生技學系
    Date: 2018-04
    Issue Date: 2018-10-22 11:35:04 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: Ethnopharmacological relevance
    Shikonin, a naphthoquinone pigment abundant in the root of the Chinese herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been widely used to treat inflammatory diseases for thousands of years. Whether shikonin changes drug metabolism remains unclear.

    Aim of the study
    We investigated whether shikonin modulates the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the possible mechanisms of this action.

    Materials and methods
    Primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0–2 μM shikonin and the protein and mRNA levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were determined.

    Shikonin dose-dependently increased the protein and RNA expression of phase I enzymes, i.e., cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1/2, CYP3A2, CYP2D1, and CYP2C6; phase II enzymes, i.e., glutathione S-transferase (GST), NADP(H) quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1A1; and phase III drug transporters, i.e., P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2/3, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, and OATP2B1. Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that shikonin increased AhR and Nrf2 nuclear contents and DNA binding activity. AhR and Nrf2 knockdown by siRNA attenuated the ability of shikonin to induce drug-metabolizing enzyme expression. In addition, shikonin increased p38, JNK, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and inhibitors of the respective kinases inhibited shikonin-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation.

    Shikonin effectively upregulates the transcription of CYP isozymes, phase II detoxification enzymes, and phase III membrane transporters and this function is at least partially through activation of AhR and Nrf2. Moreover, Nrf2 activation is dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinases.
    Appears in Collections:[Department of Food Nutrition and Healthy Biotechnology] Journal Article

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