The mesoporous calcium silicate (MesoCS) 3D-printed scaffold show excellent bioactivity and can enhance the bone-like apatite formation. The purpose of this study aims to consider the effects of the different loading methods on the novel grafting materials which composed of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded MesoCS scaffold by employing 3D-printing technique.
The MesoCS scaffold were fabricated by fused deposition modeling. In this study, there are two methods of loading BMP-2: (1) the pre-loading (PL) method by mixing MesoCS and BMP-2 as a raw material for a 3D-printer, and (2) the direct-loading (DL) method by soaking the 3D-printed MesoCS scaffold in a BMP-2 solution. The characteristics of MesoCS scaffold were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their physical properties, biocompatibility, and osteogenic-related ability were also evaluated.
The 3D MesoCS/PCL scaffolds showed excellent biocompatibility and physical properties. After soaking in simulated body fluid, the bone-like apatite layer of the PL and DL groups could be formed. In addition, the DL group released fifty percent more than the PL group at the end of the first day and PL showed a sustained release profile after 2 weeks.
The 3D MesoCS/PCL porous scaffolds were successfully fabricated via a 3D printing system and were tested in vitro and were found to show good cellular activity for cell behavior although the PL method was not favorable for clinical application in relation with the preservation of BMP-2. With regards to different growth factor loading methods, this study demonstrated that PL of BMP-2 into MesoCS prior to printing will result in a more sustained drug release pattern as compared to traditional methods of scaffolds directly immersed with BMP-2.