We tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal shockwave treatment (ESWT) can abolish inflammation and restore urothelial barrier integrity in acute interstitial cystitis by upregulating the fatty acid receptor GPR120.
A total of 30 female Sprague-Dawley rats were categorized into five groups: (1) sham-operated rats (SC); (2) rats treated with ESWT (SC + ESWT); (3) rats with bladder irritation using 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide through intraperitoneal injection; (4) cyclophosphamide rats treated with ESWT (cyclophosphamide+ESWT); (5) cyclophosphamide rats treated with GPR120 agonist (cyclophosphamide+GW9508).
On Day 3, urine and bladder specimens were collected for biochemical, histopathological, immunological, and immunoblotting analysis. Following stimulation with cyclophosphamide, the inhibition of the elevated levels of TAK1/NF-κB and phospho-TAK1/NF-κB by ESWT and GPR120 agonists in RT4 cells was associated with a suppression of NF-κB translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. Accordingly, this anti-inflammatory effect was abolished by GPR120 antagonist and knockdown of GPR120. Histologically, bladder inflammation in cyclophosphamide-treated rats was suppressed by GW9508 or ESWT. Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining revealed that cyclophosphamide treatment enhanced synthesis of extracellular matrix in rats that was reversed by GW9508 or ESWT. Upregulated pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in the cyclophosphamide-treated rats were also suppressed in the GW9508- or ESWT-treated rats. The significantly increased inflammatory cell infiltration as well as the impaired urothelial integrity of the bladder after cyclophosphamide treatment were reversed by treatment with GW9508 or ESWT.
These findings suggest that GPR120, the sensing receptor for ESWT, may be useful in the treatment of interstitial cystitis by inhibiting inflammatory response in bladder cells.