Stressful events promote psychopathogenic changes that might contribute to the development of mental illnesses. Some individuals tend to recover from the stress response, while some do not. However, the molecular mechanisms of stress resilience during stress are not well-characterized. Here, we identify proteomic changes in the hippocampus using proteomic technique to examine mice following chronic social defeat stress. We showed that small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-1 expression was significantly decreased in susceptible mice following chronic social defeat stress. We also examined a protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer of transcription (PIAS)1 levels, an E3 SUMO-protein ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1, which is known to interact with SUMO-1. PIAS1 was shown to be profoundly decreased and monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A increased in the hippocampus of susceptible mice following chronic social defeat stress. Furthermore, the manipulated PIAS1 expression in the hippocampus also has an influence on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translocation. We also found that knockdown of PIAS1 expression in the hippocampus then subject to submaximal stress increased GR to glucocorticoid response element (GRE)-binding site on the MAO-A promoter. The present study raises the possibility of different levels of PIAS1 between individuals in response to chronic social defeat stress and that such differences may contribute to the susceptibility to stress.