Sustainable consumption and production is identified as one of the essential requirements for sustainable development. Due to different economic conditions and socio-cultural factors, sustainable consumption and production requires a diverse focus in developing and developed economies. To date, few efforts have been made to systematically compare the status of sustainable consumption and production and its direction from the perspective of developing and developed economies. This paper provides a literature review of published articles in international scientific journals related to sustainable consumption and production between 1998 and 2018 inclusive. Three carefully designed questions are proposed and answered in this article, forming the basis for conducting a comprehensive comparative analysis of the differences and challenges in sustainable consumption and production practices within developed and developing economies. The findings strongly suggest that countries in Europe hold international leadership in sustainable consumption and production practices. This finding, alongside others, is analyzed and discussed in greater detail in this paper, resulting in the articulation of gaps and future research opportunities in the current body of the literature.