Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with high incidence of gastric diseases. The extensive therapy of H. pylori infection with antibiotics has increased its resistance rates worldwide. Ovatodiolide, a pure constituent isolated from Anisomeles indica, has been demonstrated to possess bactericidal activity against H. pylori. In this study, ovatodiolide inhibited the growth of both H. pylori reference strain and clinical multidrug-resistant isolates. Docking analysis revealed that ovatodiolide fits into the hydrophobic pocket of a ribosomal protein, RpsB. Furthermore, ovatodiolide inhibited bacterial growth by reducing levels of RpsB, which plays a crucial role in protein translation. Our results demonstrate that ovatodiolide binds to a ribosomal protein and interferes with protein synthesis. This study provides evidence that ovatodiolide has the potential to be developed into a potent therapeutic agent for treating H. pylori infection.