|Abstract: ||在臺灣現今國小教育中，傳統教學（Traditional-Classroom Learning, TCL）和多媒體影音教學（Multimedia-Video Learning, MVL）這兩種教學模式是目前運用較普遍的教學方法，但學者紛紛指出傳統教學並非學童喜歡的教學方式，而多元教學模式討論度最高，不少國小授課都開始學習效仿，掀起一股熱潮。此種多元教學模式在大學端的設計領域，操作的相當成熟，但小學還在實驗階段，為了達成教育目的，課程內容設計與操作，實質策劃和手法，更是授課時師生互動的重要橋樑，因而本研究希望能尋找出讓學童快樂學習，並且有效的教學方式。
用教育的方式來傳達動保知識與生命教育之觀念，設定對象為學童，希望學童能了解流浪狗的相關訊息與狗和平共處，而啟發了這次的實驗研究。目前臺灣小學運用較普遍的教學方法為傳統教學（Traditional-Classroom Learning, TCL）和多媒體影音教學（Multimedia-Video Learning, MVL）這兩種，並外加問題導向學習（Problem Based Learning, PBL），以這三種教學模式進行實驗比較。
本研究方法使用資料收集、觀察法、行動研究法與問卷調查法進行研究，實驗對象針對國小二年級學童，規劃調查分別為前測、後測（一）與後測（二）三次的測驗，先進行前測之「學童對於狗的基本認知程度」。測驗與課題內容分別為「如何安全的與狗相處」、「如何判斷狗的情緒」、「流浪狗的資訊」、「飼養狗之正確觀念」四大類。具研究目的如下： 1）教學模式的實踐和成果。 2）學童對教學模式之喜好趨向。 3）PBL、MVL、TCL教學模式對於學童之短效記憶學習成效。 4）PBL、MVL、TCL教學模式對於學童的長效記憶學習成效。 5）解析學童在教學模式學習成效間的關係與對教學模式的喜好度。
最後，本研究依據研究結果提出建議： 1）可把測試的學童年齡往中、高年級或國中做相關研究。 2）可將內容變更為不同課題。 3）可在教學上使用兩種模式互相搭配，在互相搭配的方式增加課程的樂趣。以提供教學以及未來研究之參考。
Traditional-Classroom Learning(TCL) and Multimedia-Video Learning(MVL) are the two most commonly used teaching methods nowadays in Taiwan. But researchers indicated that TCL is not a kind of teaching methods which children prefer, on the contrast Problem-Based Learning(PBL) gets a higher discussion. Following the trend, educators have been starting to imitate and construct this model in an elementary school class. It finds that PBL has grown to maturity in practice in the university design field, but it is still in experimenting stage in the elementary school class. To achieve an educational purpose, it is believed that curriculum practice and substantial methods will take a lead to the interaction between teachers and students in a class. So the study hopes to find effective ways and methods by which children become happier while learning.
Since dogs are the largest number of pets in our country, the study chooses dogs as an important topic of life education. Although dogs have become people’s best friends, companion animal and had got the name like son or daughter, fur-kids…etc, there are still a lot of stray dogs. According to reports, not only stray dogs but also pet dags would attack people. Every year, there are approximately twenty thousand medical cases that humans are bitten by dogs, in which the elder people and children are in the majority. This fact also causes the study to question “Taiwanese people are lacking basic cognition to dogs or not.” Moreover, using TCL, MVL and PBL teaching methods for an elementary school class to carry out a cross-comparison experiment.
In this study, data collection, observational method, action research, and survey techniques are conducted. The experimental subject is G2 students, and a three-times test is planned for pre-test, post-test 1 and post-test 2 respectively. The pre-test focuses on “G2 Students’ degrees of basic cognition to dogs”. The curriculum issues are divided into four parts, “how to get with dogs safely,” “how to judge dogs’ emotion,” “the information of stray dogs,” and “the right attitude of petting dogs.” The study purposes are: 1) The practice and achievement of teaching models. 2) The G2 Students’ degrees of basic cognition to dogs and teaching models preferences. 3) Students’ degrees of basic cognition learning outcome for short-term memory when using teaching models of PBL, MVL, TCL. 4) Students’ learning outcome for long-term memory when using teaching models of PBL, MVL, TCL. 5) To analyze the relation between teaching models preference and learning effectiveness.
The results can be divided into three phases and be described as following, Pre-test:.
G2 Students’ are lack of cognition to dogs, and it is proved that the implement of life education lessons about dogs has a certain importance to them, making children gain the related knowledge; in the meantime, the proportion of children being attacked by dogs is declined. By taking lessons, we can change the children’s fear of unfamiliarity with dogs and thus contribute to children’s physical and mental development.
The best teaching model for short-term memory is Group TCL. Group PBL is in the worst performance, the reason is that G2 Students’ are still not familiar with it. Therefore, Group PBL gets low learning effectiveness.
The best teaching model for long-term memory is Group MVL. But it finds that the long-term memory effect of Group PBL increased the most.
Finally, according to the results, the Study submits the following suggestions: 1) The age of experimental subject can be moved up to G4~6 Students or junior high students for the related study. 2) Taking different topics. 3) Educators can match any two models with each other in use for teaching and raise more fun in class. This is a reference for elementary education in the future.