Arthritis has a high prevalence globally and includes over 100 types, the most common of which are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis and inflammatory arthritis. The exact etiology of arthritis remains unclear and no cure exists. Anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in the treatment of arthritis, but are associated with significant side effects. Novel modes of therapy and additional prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed for these patients. In this editorial, the twenty articles published in the Special Issue Research of Pathogenesis and Novel Therapeutics in Arthritis 2019 are summarized and discussed as part of the global picture of the current understanding of arthritis.