This study investigated stress and other factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) outpatients with temporary colostomies in Taiwan. Temporary colostomies have been incorporated as a defecation alternative to maintain physical function and are accompanied by chemotherapy/radiotherapy in CRC patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenience sampling approach was adopted to recruit 110 discharged CRC patients with temporary colostomies from a medical centre in southern Taiwan. The mean score of the Stress of Colostomy Patients Scale was 66.49 (out of 120). Demographic attributes were found to have an impact on different stress types. Stress of changes in familial and social interaction was affected by age, employment status, educational level and colostomy assistant caregiver. The stress of colostomy care was impacted by the factor of employment status, and the stress of changes of self-concept was impacted by the factors of educational level and self-perception of disease. The results provide post-operative information regarding stress and stress types among CRC patients with temporary colostomies, serve as a reference for clinical assessment, practice and care, and generate up-to-date knowledge and comprehension of learning how to live with a temporary colostomy.