This study aimed to validate the influence of empowering leadership on safety behavior in the medical industry and examine the mediating effects of knowledge sharing and safety climate. We adopted a hierarchical linear model to perform a cross-hierarchy analysis on the entire research framework. We examined knowledge sharing and safety behavior on the individual level and examined empowering leadership and safety climate on the organizational level. The findings revealed that empowering leadership is a prerequisite of safety behavior, particularly when leaders are empowering leaders. Such leaders formulate and comply with safety procedures and requirements and enhance safety participation. We validated that knowledge sharing is a key mediator between empowering leadership and safety behavior. Empowering leaders empower employees to participate in decision making and encourage them to resolve problems together and share knowledge, thereby enhancing their knowledge sharing behavior, safety participation willingness, and safety compliance. We also validated the mediating effects of safety climate. Leaders influence employees’ safety behavior through safety climate. When leaders adopt empowering leadership, they create favorable safety climate, which promote safety behavior.