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    Title: Editorial: Glutamate-Related Biomarkers for Neuropsychiatric Disorders
    Authors: Chieh-Hsin, L;Lin, Chieh-Hsin;Hashim, Kenji;Hashimoto, Kenji;藍先元;Lane, Hsien Yuan
    Contributors: 心理學系
    Keywords: glutamate;NMDA;schizophrenia;depression;Alzheimer's disease;autoimmune encephalitis;autism;addiction
    Date: 2019-12
    Issue Date: 2020-09-04 13:41:50 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 亞洲大學
    Abstract: The glutamate receptor plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, learning, memory, and the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, addiction, autism, autoimmune encephalitis, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.

    For example, both ionotropic (especially NMDA and AMPA) and metabotropic (mGLU) receptors were reported to be involved in schizophrenia. In details, taking NMDA receptors (NMDARs) as an example, the receptors are widely distributed in most major organs (including heart, ovary, kidney, gastrointestinal system, lung, and etc.) and tissues (including ganglia cells, nerve fibers, blood vessels, enteroendocrine cells, liver, mast cells, inflammatory cells and etc.). The NMDAR has binding sites not only for glutamate or aspartate, but also a separate coagonist site for the endogenous ligands, D-serine, D-alanine, and glycine. Occupancy of the coagonist site can increase the frequency of opening of the channels activated by NMDAR agonists, facilitating excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. In fact, the binding of both glycine (or D-serine, D-alanine) and glutamate is required to open the NMDAR channel ionophore.

    Some of the NMDARs isolated from peripheral tissues have been cloned and sequenced. These sequences correspond with NMDARs that have been cloned in the CNS. Further physiological and pharmacological experiments support the hypothesis that NMDARs in the periphery have similar properties to those in the CNS or expressed in host cells transfected with cloned subunits. Physiological studies with agonists and antagonists of the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR in the pig ileum have shown that these receptors are similar to those characterized in the CNS.
    Relation: Frontiers in Psychiatry
    Appears in Collections:[Department of Psychology] Journal Article

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