We demonstrate the mechanism by which Cordyceps sinensis (CS) mycelium regulates Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Mouse Leydig cells were treated with forskolin, H89, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, staurosporine, or steroidogenic enzyme precursors with or without 3 mg/ml CS; then testosterone production was determined. H89, but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or staurosporine, decreased CS-treated Leydig cell steroidogenesis. CS inhibited Leydig cell steroidogenesis by suppressing the activity of P450scc enzyme, but not 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 20α-hydroxylase, or 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes. Thus, CS activated the cAMP–protein kinase A signal pathway, but not protein kinase C, and attenuated P45scc enzyme activity to reduce human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated steroidogenesis in purified mouse Leydig cells.