Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis can mean adequate treatment and increase survival.
This study uses ClinProt technique to identify salivary biomarkers for early diagnosis of OSCC. A total of 77 salivary samples from both OSCC patients (n = 47) and healthy donors (n = 30) were analyzed with MALDI-TOF MS technology.
Salivary peptides from OSCC patients were separated, using C8-functionalized magnetic beads. Three signals (2918.57 Da, 5592.64 Da, and 4372.66 Da) distinguished OSCC patients from controls. Among them, unique peptide 2918.57 Da, identified as a 24-mer peptide of zinc finger protein 510 (ZNF510), was found in 0% of saliva from healthy individuals, versus 25.0% and 60% from OSCC patients with T1 + T2 and T3 + T4 stages, respectively (P < 0.001). ELISA analysis with rabbit anti-ZNF510 peptide sera shows a starkly higher 24-mer ZNF510 peptide level in saliva from OSCC patients than that in controls (P < 0.001). Also, in immunohistochemical analysis of oral tissues, a significantly higher level of ZNF510 was observed in OSCC tissues than in the OSCC free control tissues. Analysis of areas under receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves in OSCC early (T1 + T2) and late stages (T3 + T4) shows greater than 0.95.
Identifying 24-mer ZNF510 peptide as OSCC-related salivary biomarkers via proteomic approach proved useful in adjunct diagnosis for early detection rather than specific diagnosis marker for progression of OSCC patients.
OSCC, oral squamous cell carcinoma; PCA, principal component analysis"