The purposes of this study were to evaluate the safety of water extracts of Toona sinensis Roemor leaf (TSL-1). The mutagenic properties of TSL-1 was investigated using the Ames test, and no mutagenicity was found toward all tester strains (Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535). In the acute oral toxicity study, a single limit dose of 5000 mgTSL-1/kg bw was given to male and female ICR mice, then observed for a 14-day period. In the subacute study, TSL-1 was administered as oral daily dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/day for 28 days. The results showed no acute lethal effect at a maximal tested dose of 5000 mg/kg bw TSL-1 in male and female mice. The subacute toxicity showed the oral administration of 1000 mg/kg bw for consecutive 28 days was safe in male mice. TSL-1 treated female mice showed decreases of food intake and kidney relative weight in acute oral toxicity test, and decreases of body weight gain, food intake and lung relative weight in subacute toxicity trial. However, no remarked toxic effects were found in the biochemical and histopathological parameters of TSL-1 treated female mice. These effects whether related to the major components or other ingredients in TSL-1 need to elucidate in the further studies.