Solanum lyratum Thunberg (Solanaceae) has been used as a folk medicine for treating liver, lung and esophagus in the Chinese population. Our previous studies have shown that the crude extract of S. lyratum Thunberg (SLE) induced apoptosis in colo 205 human colon adenocarcinoma cells; however, there is no report to show SLE affect immune responses in vivo. In this study, the in vivo effects of SLE on leukemia WEHI-3 cells and immune responses such as phagocytosis and natural killer (NK) cell activity in normal and leukemia mice were investigated. The SLE treatment decreases surface markers of CD3 and Mac-3 in normal and leukemia mice but promoted the cell markers of CD19 and CD11b in normal mice and CD11b in leukemia mice indicating that the precursors of T cells was inhibited and B cells and macrophage were promoted. The SLE treatment promoted the activity of macrophage phagocytosis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and peritoneal cells from normal and leukemia mice. The results also showed that NK cells from the normal and leukemia mice after treatment with SLE can kill the YAC-1 target cells. Therefore, the SLE treatment increased macrophage and NK cell activities. These consistent results indicate SLE could be a potent immune responses agent.