To identify the mislabeled or fraudulently substituted toxic puffer fish in thermally processed fish products, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using restriction sites and sequence analysis has been developed in this study. A 376-bp fragment of the cytochrome b gene was produced after PCR amplification. Fish tissue samples were prepared under autoclaving conditions at 121 °C for 10–90 min at 10 min intervals. DNA fragments could not be detected after 90 min of autoclaving at 121 °C. For PCR product digestion, BsaJ I, Aci I, Hinf I, Taq I, and Sap I endonucleases were used to yield species-specific profiles for the identification of puffer fish species from 60 commercial market samples. Results from this study showed that the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique can be used to identify 17 puffer fish species from commercial products even after severe thermal processing.