Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with the development of Kaposi's sarcoma and several other human malignancies. The prevalence of HHV-8 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in Taiwanese leukemia populations has not been investigated. In this study, HHV-8 DNA was extracted from PBMCs, and detected in 10.29% of the leukemia cases and 8.94% of the relatives' cases. In addition, the prevalence of HHV-8 DNA in PBMCs was nonsignificantly associated with gender, age and leukemia subtypes. The study examines the prevalence of HHV-8 DNA in PBMCs in Taiwanese leukemia and can be applied in further epidemiological studies.