To present prenatal ultrasound and perinatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Galloway-Mowat syndrome.
A 31-year-old woman, gravida 3, para 2, was referred for genetic counseling at 29 weeks of gestation because of abnormal ultrasound findings and a previous child with Galloway-Mowat syndrome. During this pregnancy, microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and oligohydramnios were first noted at 27 weeks of gestation. Repeated ultrasounds showed microcephaly, IUGR, and oligohydramnios. MRI performed at 32 weeks of gestation showed reduced sulcation of the brain, pachygyria, poor myelination of the white matter, and cerebellar atrophy. A diagnosis of recurrent Galloway-Mowat syndrome was made. At 40 weeks of gestation, a 2,496-g female baby was delivered with microcephaly, a narrow slopping forehead, epicanthic folds, microphthalmos, a highly arched palate, a small midface, a beaked nose, thin lips, large low-set floppy ears, clenched hands, and arachnodactyly. Postnatal MRI findings were consistent with the prenatal diagnosis. Renal ultrasound showed enlarged bilateral kidneys with increased echogenicity. At the age of 2 weeks, the infant became edematous and developed nephrotic syndrome.
Microcephaly, IUGR, and oligohydramnios are significant ultrasound triad of fetal Galloway-Mowat syndrome. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of microcephaly, IUGR, and oligohydramnios in late second trimester or in early third trimester should alert clinicians to the possibility of Galloway-Mowat syndrome and prompt a detailed search of abnormal sulcation, cortical gyral maldevelopment, and cerebellar atrophy by fetal ultrafast MRI.