"In this study, we have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of imperatorin, a compound isolated from the
roots of Glehnia littoralis, using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) in vitro and a
carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model in vivo. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with imperatorin
together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of NO production was detected. Western blotting revealed
that imperatorin blocked the protein expression of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7
macrophages significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, imperatorin decreased the paw edema at 4 and 5 h after Carr
administration and increased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in paw edema. We also
demonstrated that imperatorin significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde level in the edema paw at the fifth hour after Carr
injection. Imperatorin decreased the NO and tumor necrosis factor and prostaglandin E2 levels on serum at 5 h after Carr
injection. Western blotting revealed that imperatorin decreased Carr-induced iNOS and COX-2 expressions at 5 h in edema paw.
An intraperitoneal injection treatment with imperatorin also diminished neutrophil infiltration into sites of inflammation as did
indomethacin. The results suggested that imperatorin had anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and Carrinjected mice, respectively. In addition, inhibition of elevated iNOS and COX-2 protein expression as well as neutrophil
infiltration of Carr-injected paws may be involved in the beneficial effects of imperatorin."
JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY; 60(7):1673-81.