Limited information is available concerning the effects of aerobic exercise on vasorelaxation in hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on insulin- and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-induced vasorelaxation in hypertensive rats. Four-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into a sedentary group (SHR) and an exercise group (SHR+Ex) subjected to a single bout of aerobic exercise conducted by treadmill running at 21 m min−1 for 1 h. Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as a normotensive control group (WKY). Insulin- and IGF-1-induced vasorelaxant responses in the three groups were evaluated by using isolated aortic rings, with or without endothelial denudation, in organ baths. Possible roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) involved in the NO-dependent vasorelaxation were examined by adding selective inhibitors. The role of superoxide was also clarified by adding superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, the endothelium-independent vascular responses to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, were examined. The insulin- and IGF-1-induced vasorelaxation was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the SHR group compared with the WKY group. This decreased response in SHR was improved by exercise. These vasorelaxant responses among the three groups became similar after endothelial denudation and pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitor, NOS inhibitor or SOD. Also, no difference among groups was found in the SNP-induced vasorelaxation. We concluded that a single bout of aerobic exercise acutely improves insulin- and IGF-1-mediated vasorelaxation in an endothelium-dependent manner in hypertensive rats.