Chondrosarcoma is a type of highly malignant tumor with a potent capacity of local invasion and distant metastasis. The effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on migration activity in human chondrosarcoma cells is not clearly understood. Here, we found that ET-1 increased the migration and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in human chondrosarcoma cells.
ET-1-mediated COX-2 expression was assessed by qPCR and Western blot analysis. The mechanisms of action of ET-1 in different signaling pathways were studied using Western blotting. Knockdown of proteins was achieved by transfection with siRNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to study in vivo binding of c-Jun to the COX-2 promoter.
Human chondrosarcoma tissues had significant expression levels of ET-1 and COX-2, which were higher than that in normal cartilage. Exogenous ET-1 increased cell migration and the expression of COX-2. In addition, COX-2 protein levels and cell migration ability were abolished by ET receptor antagonists. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathways after ET-1 treatment was demonstrated, and ET-1-induced COX-2 expression and cell migration activity were inhibited by the specific inhibitor and mutant of MAPK and AP-1 cascades. ET-1 increased the binding of c-Jun to the AP-1 element on the COX-2 promoter. Furthermore, knockdown of ET-1 decreased cell metastasis in vitro and in vivo.
Our results indicated that ET-1 enhances the cell migration of chondrosarcoma by increasing COX-2 expression through the ET receptors, MAPK, and AP-1 signal transduction pathway.
We link high ET-1 and COX-2 expression to chondrosarcoma.
BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-GENERAL SUBJECTS,1830(6).3355–3364.