This study aims at development of transparent conducting thin film solar cells with the attempt to optimize the optoelectronic conversion efficiency. The attention was first paid to the development of critical p-type transparent conducting thin film by investigating into its microstructure and optoelectronic properties. Subsequently, thin film solar cells with p-n and p-i-n devices were made from select transparent conducting thin film having the superior conductivity and transparency, and deep analysis was performed on the devices for identifying their optoelectronic properties. Two stages were involved in the study. In the first year, the work was focused on using optimize p-type ternary copper-based oxides (CuAlO2, CuCrO2, CuGaO2 and CuFeO2) as the primary materials to make p-type thin film on which n-type semiconductor oxides were deposited. In the second year, optimized p-type ternary silver-based oxides (AgAlO2, AgCrO2, AgGaO2 and AgFeO2) were adopted as the primary materials for thin film to receive deposition of n-type semiconductor oxides, respectively. The study also went to the compositions, interface treatment for each layer, material thickness and material selection for electrodes with respect to transparent conducting thin film in terms of optoelectronic properties and structure, with the hope to put forward a new direction for research and development of solar cells.