Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched vesicles from etiolated hypocotyls of mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata) were successfully isolated using Ficoll gradient and two-phase (polyethylene glycol-dextran) partition. The ER-enriched vesicles contained inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) hydrolysis and its associated proton translocating activities. Antiserum prepared against vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase, EC 18.104.22.168) did not inhibit this novel pyrophosphatase-dependent proton translocation, excluding the possible contamination of tonoplast vesicles in the ER-enriched membrane preparation. The optimal ratios of Mg2+/PPi (inorganic pyrophosphate) for enzymatic activity and PPi-dependent proton translocation of ER-enriched vesicles were higher than those of vacuolar membranes. The PPi-dependent proton translocation of ER-enriched vesicles absolutely required the presence of monovalent cations with preference for K+, but could be inhibited by a common PPase inhibitor, F-. Furthermore, ER H+-pyrophosphatase exhibited some similarities and differences to vacuolar H+-PPases in cofactor/substrate ratios, pH profile, and concentration dependence of F-, imidodiphosphate (a PPi analogue), and various chemical modifiers. These results suggest that ER-enriched vesicles contain a novel type of proton-translocating PPase distinct from that of tonoplast from higher plants.