Outbreak of swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus (pdmH1N1) occurred in 2009. Taiwanese authorities implemented nationwide vaccinations with pdmH1N1-specific inactivated vaccine as of November 2009. This study evaluates prevalence, HA phylogenetic relationship, and transmission dynamic of influenza A and B viruses in Taiwan in 2009–2010. Respiratory tract specimens were analyzed for influenza A and B viruses. The pdmH1N1 peaked in November 2009, was predominant from August 2009 to January 2010, then sharply dropped in February 2010. Significant prevalence peaks of influenza B in April–June of 2010 and H3N2 virus in July and August were observed. Highest percentage of pdmH1N1- and H3N2-positive cases appeared among 11–15-year-olds; influenza B-positive cases were dominant among those 6–10 years old. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees showed 11 unique clusters of pdmH1N1, seasonal H3N2 influenza A and B viruses, as well as transmission clusters and mixed infections of influenza strains in Taiwan. The 2009 pdmH1N1 virus was predominant in Taiwan from August 2009 to January 2010; seasonal H3N2 influenza A and B viruses exhibited small prevalence peaks after nationwide vaccinations. Phylogenetic evidence indicated transmission clusters and multiple independent clades of co-circulating influenza A and B strains in Taiwan.