Purpose: Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), a multifunctional growth factor that plays a key role in the remodeling of scleral tissue, may be involved in the predisposition and pathophysiology of high myopia. Our aim was to examine the association between myopia and the polymorphisms within codon 10 of the TGFβ1 gene. Methods: This was a case control study. The study group contained participants who had high myopia and a spherical equivalent greater than -6.00 D. The control group was composed of medical students whose spherical equivalent was less then -0.5 D. All volunteers in this study were over 16 years old and had never undergone ocular surgery. Genotyping was conducted by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and the results were compared between myopia patients and control subjects. Results: The frequency of the CC genotype in TGFβ1 codon 10 differed significantly between patients in the high myopia group (n=201) and individuals in the control group (n=86; p<0.001). People with either the CT or TT genotype had a lower probability of having high myopia with a spherical equivalent greater than -6.00 D than those with the CC genotype. Furthermore, there was a higher frequency of the C allele in the high myopia group than with the control group (p<0.001, OR=1.83, CI=1.27-2.63). Conclusions: The frequency of the CC homozygote in the high myopia group was much higher than in the control group, indicating people with the CC homozygote may be at a higher risk of developing high myopia. Varied expression of this gene may contribute to the genetic predisposition to high myopia in Chinese Taiwanese.