Viral infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires integration of viral DNA with host DNA which involves the binding of HIV integrase (IN) with its co-factor lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75). Since disrupted binding of IN with LEDGF/p75 inhibits proliferation of HIV, inhibition or denaturation of IN is a possible method for inhibiting HIV replication. D77 is a known drug with demonstrated inhibition against HIV by binding to IN. Herein, we utilized D77 as a control to screen for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds that exhibit similar atomic-level characteristics. 9-Hydroxy-(10E)-octadecenoic acid and Beauveriolide I were found to have higher Dock Scores to IN than D77 through virtual screening. Multiple linear regression (R2 = 0.9790) and support vector machine (R2 = 0.9114) models consistently predicted potential bioactivity of the TCM candidates against IN. The 40 ns molecular dynamics simulation showed that the TCM compounds fulfilled the drug-like criteria of forming stable complexes with IN. Atomic-level investigations revealed that 9-hydroxy-(10E)-octadecenoic acid bound to an important residue A:Lys173, and Beauveriolide I formed stable interactions with the core LEDGF binding site and with Asn256 of the IN binding site on LEDGF. The TCM candidates also initiated loss of α-helices that could affect the functionality of IN. Taken together, the ability of 9-hydroxy-(10E)-octadecenoic acid and Beauveriolide I to (1) form stable interactions affecting IN-LEDGF binding and (2) have predicted bioactivity against IN suggests that the TCM candidates might be potential starting structures for developing compounds that may disrupt IN-LEDGF binding. An animated interactive 3D complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:40.
JOURNAL OF BIOMOLECULAR STRUCTURE & DYNAMICS;32(1):1-12.