|Abstract: ||This intervention study used an experimental design with prior- and posttests. A total of 21 residents living in a long-term care institiontion were recruited and divided into two groups. Ten residents were assigned to the experimental group and another 11 residents were in the the control group. Subjects in the experimental group took a 10-week swimming course,including basic swimming, muscular strength, float, foot, and water walking training. Subjects in the control group maintained their daily routines. Each subject was tested three times, before the intervention, at the end of 5th week, and after the 10-week course. We tested their improvement of activities of daily living, functional physical fitness (including flexibility, balance, cardiovascular endurance, and muscular strength), cognition, depression and life satisfaction. Additionally, we interviewed participants, coaches, assistants, long-term care institution managers, nurses, and social workers to collect their evaluations on the
subjects in the intervention group. The results showed that participants in the experimental group improved in their performance on "lower extremity flexibility" and "balance". Upon completing the intervention, 3 of 10 participants in the experimental group can walk on their own (get rid their wheelchairs or crutches). In terms of evaluations on activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction, the results showed some improvement at the end of 5th week, but by the end of the intervention, all of them had returned to their original levels. Interview results showed that many factors were associated with the physiological and psychological benefits among these long-term care residents, such as physical and mental condition of participants, teaching experience of the coaches or knowledge to take care of minor disability elderly, the support from teaching assistants, the environment and equipment for their teaching, and counseling from long-term care institutions.