This study aims to understand the relationship between leisure diversity and national development, and to explore the possibility of trying to use it as an indicator of national development. Data came from part of the 2007 International Social Survey program (ISSP) - Leisure Time and Sports Basic Questionnaire regarding leisure participation. This study used six dimensions to measure national development including natural, physical, financial, political, social and human capital with 1-4 indicators for each capital. Leisure participation diversity was measured by four indicators. Correlation analysis showed that leisure diversity is positively correlated with national development indicators except for indexies of fresh water (physical capital), freedom (political capital), and health (social capital). Then, QCA showed that leisure participation diversity（D2 indicator）can be regarded as the phenomenon of while developing political, social, human capital at the same time. Thus, leisure participation diversity can be one of the reference indicators of national development.